Penn Central Railroad

           No business is risk free. It is remarkable how even monopolies, whether of a natural sort or those granted by law, are susceptible to challenge. The British East India Company possessed one of the most remarkable monopolies in history and even it struggled to make money for certain long periods in its history. Railroads were

William Durant

           In the early days of any industry, growth requires lots of external capital. Reinvested profits, if there are any profits at all, are usually woefully insufficient to meet the growth expected by visionary founders or eager customers alike. This means the founders and executives of firms in new industries have to be capable financiers, or

Dow Jones & Co.

           Honest financial journalism is indispensable to ethical financial markets. It is hard to imagine a clean financial industry in operation if the state of its trade press was unchanged from that of the middle of the 19th century, when financial journalism could be summarized as the propagation of rumors, often with nefarious ends. The professionalization

American Express

           The world became more interconnected in the 19th century as railways and telegraph expanded the reach of business. By facilitating long-distance transactions, express shipping became vital to many industries, including finance. This softens any surprise accompanying the fact that two of the largest financial firms in the United States today, Wells Fargo and American Express,

Russia’s Voucher Privatization

           When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the abandonment of socialism in its former republics accelerated. In Russia in particular, industries were privatized at a breakneck pace. At first, this was done by so-called ‘voucher privatization’ where shares were purchased by ordinary people using vouchers distributed to almost all Russian citizens. One might expect such

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