American Express

           The world became more interconnected in the 19th century as railways and telegraph expanded the reach of business. By facilitating long-distance transactions, express shipping became vital to many industries, including finance. This softens any surprise accompanying the fact that two of the largest financial firms in the United States today, Wells Fargo and American Express,

Ford’s 1919 Management Buyout

           Leveraged buyouts, the acquisition of companies where the purchase price is paid primarily by borrowing, became increasingly common in the 1980s. Very often, existing management teams are invited to participate in a leveraged buyout by the acquirer. Occasionally, it is the management team themselves who initiate the transaction and in this variation the arrangement is

Russia’s Voucher Privatization

           When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the abandonment of socialism in its former republics accelerated. In Russia in particular, industries were privatized at a breakneck pace. At first, this was done by so-called ‘voucher privatization’ where shares were purchased by ordinary people using vouchers distributed to almost all Russian citizens. One might expect such

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